Sihag is a gotra of Jats found in Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Delhi Western Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh in India. Apart from India, this gotra is also found in Sindh, Punjab (Pakistan), many countries of Europe and America. Sihags are Suryavanshi Kshatriyas. They were rulers in Central Asia.
Variants of Sihag
Sihag, Siyag, Sehwag, Suhag, Siag, Siyak, Sihak, Syak, Sehag, Syag, Sinhwag, Siwal, Bolan, Asii, Asiwagas, Asiagh, Asyak, Asyag, Siwag, Asiagh are the known variants of the clan name. Bolan is its branch.
They are known as Ashkenaz in Iran, Asiani in Greece, Asii in Central Asia, and Asika in old Indian literature like Mahabharata. Ashangi clan is found in Afghanistan.
Origin of Name
Assaka (Pali) or Aswaka (Mahabharata) or Ashmaka (Panini) was was a region of ancient India (700–300 BCE). The descendants of these people are said to have been called Asiagh.
James Tod writes that The Indo-Scythic tribes were designated by the names of animals. The Barahas are the hogs ; the Numries, the foxes ; Takshaks, the snakes ; Aswas or Asi, the horses, etc.
History of Sihag Gotra
According to Kautilya the people who depended on “Asii” (sword) for their living were known as Asiagh. Sihag’s are one of the most ancient warrior gotra of Jats. James Todd related them with Asii people.
They were part of larger Jat clan and were war-like martial race.They ruled on many parts in central Asia and Europe and were major ruling Jat gotra(clan).
Like all other Jats they are merged decendents of Indo-Scythians and Indo-Aryans.
Sihag Jats were in a Scythian tribe called Massagetae and lived on the banks of the River Oxus(Amu Darya) along with Her, Bhullar and Dahiya Jat tribes in central asia thousands of years before Christ,than they migrated to northern salt-range Punjab region in India and than Asiagh (Sihag) along with Punia,Godara,Saran,Beniwal and Johiya migrated to north Rajasthan region known as Jangladesh and ruled there till 15th century.
Sihags and Manns of Western Punjab and Rajasthan consider themselves to be the brethren of the Her and Bhular gotras(clan).
The Sihag’s are mentioned in the Puranas and the Mahabharat. A Sihag king offered a gift to Yudhisthra on his coronation. Thousands of years ago Her,Dahiya,Bhular and Sihag lived in Iran and Turkistan
Kot Kaloor (Pallu) in Mewar has been the capital of the Sihag rulers. Pahulkot has also been their capital. Some names of these Sihag rulers were Vir Rana, Dhir Rana, Sivaji Sihag, Manak Dev Ji, Chokha Singh Sihag etc. They are mentioned in the manuscript of genealogical tables in the possession of Gorakh Singh.
H. W. Bellew writes that The Achakzi, of all the Afghan tribes are noted for their turbulence and barbarity; and the Sanskrit name Achi-ho-lada, or Achi-holara, of the Rajataringini expresses this character for it means ” The turbulent Achi.” Tod, in his enumeration of the Hindu tribes of the Indian desert, mentions the Ashyag, a name which may stand for the Sanskrit Achi, and is evidently the source of the Afghan Achak, whom we have noticed among the Durani clans.
James Todd writes that Jakhar, Asaich, Punia are all denominations of the Jat race, a few of whom preserve under these ancient subdivisions their old customs and religion; but the greater part are among the converts to Islam, and retain the generic name, pronounced Zjat. Those enumerated are harmless and industrious, and are found both in the desert and valley.
Dr Pema Ram writes that after the invasion of Alexander in 326 BC, the Jats of Sindh and Punjab migrated to Rajasthan. They built tanks, wells and Bawadis near their habitations. The tribes migrated were: Shivis, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Madras etc. The Shivi tribe which came from Ravi and Beas Rivers founded towns like Sheo, Sojat, Siwana, Shergarh, Shivganj etc. This area was adjoining to Sindh and mainly inhabited by Jats. The descendants of Madras in Rajasthan are: Jinja, Bana, Thoria, Lagman, Kamodia, Madal, Devsalya, Junawa, Maderna, Judi, Madrewa, Khokh, Asihag etc.
Chahamans of Marwar V Bali Stone Inscription of Ashvaka S.V. 1200 (1143 AD) mentions a village Thambhila, which probably is the ancient name of this village.
Ram Swarup Joon writes that Pliny has written that during a conflict between KhanKesh, a province in Turkey, and Babylonia, they sent for the Sindhu Jats from Sindh. These soldiers wore cotton uniforms and were experts in naval warfare. On return from Turkey they settled down in Syria. They belonged to Hasti dynasty. Asiagh Jats ruled Alexandria in Egypt. Their title was Asii
Ram Swarup Joon writes about Sihag, Mann: People belonging to these gotras in Haryana claim common descent with Deshwals and Dalals. For about 30 generations they have looked upon Dhana Rao Rathor as their forefather. But Sihags and Manns of Western Punjab are not aware of their association with Deshwals and Dalals. They consider themselves to be the brethren of the Heir and Bhuller gotras.
The Sihags are mentioned in the Puranas and the Mahabharat. A Sihag king offered a gift to Yudhisthira on his coronation. Thousands of years ago Heir, Bhuller and Sihag lived in Iran and Turkistan.
Kot Khokhar in Mewar has been the capital of the Sihag rulers. Pahulkot has also been their capital. Some names of these Sihag rulers were Vir Rana, Dhir Rana etc. They are mentioned in the manuscript of genealogical tables in the possession of Gorakh Singh.
Sihags are found in a large number in Bikaner, Bahawalpur and in Haryana 25 villages are inhabited by them in one compact group in district Rohtak.
The Mann gotra is found more among the Sikhs than the Hindu Jats. According to the Census report of 1911 their number was 42 000 in number of among the in district
Sihag in Tejaji History
Rajal (1076-1103 AD) was daughter of Kharnal Chiftain Tahar Dev and sister of Tejaji of Dhaulya Gotra. She became sati on the death of his brother Tejaji in 1103 AD. Her temple is situated on the bank of pond in Kharnal, Nagaur, Rajasthan.
When Tejaji was proceeding for his Sasural Paner to bring his wife Pemal, he was asked to bringfirst his sister Rajal so that she can receive Pemal on her first arrival to Kharnal.
When Tejaji was on way to village Tabiji to bring his sister Rajal, he was attacked by Meena sardar. Tejaji inserted the bhala in ground and challenged the enemies to take it out. Enemies could not do it and ran away. There was a war and Tejaji was victorious. He reached village Tabiji, got permission of her sister’s husband Jogaji Siyag and brought Rajal to Kharnal.
Table of Jat republics in Jangladesh
Dr Karni Singh, a well known political personality and author, records that Jats had established powerful governments in north India. Prior to 1488 Jats had seven Janapadas of Godara, Saran, Sihag, Beniwal, Puniya, Johiya in desert region of Bikaner. Following are the main clans and their heads with capital and number of villages in each territory.
|S.No.||Name of janapada||Name of chieftain||No. of villages||Capital||Names of districts|
|1.||Punia||Kanha Punia||300||Jhansal /Luddi||Bhadra, Ajitpura, Sidhmukh, Rajgarh, Dadrewa, Sankhoo|
|2.||Beniwal||Raisal Beniwal||150||Raisalana||Bhukarkho, Sanduri, Manoharpur, Kooi, Bae|
|3.||Johiya||Sher Singh Johiya||600||Bhurupal||Jaitpur, Kumana, Mahajan, Peepasar, Udasar|
|4.||Sihag||Chokha Singh Sihag||150||Suin/Pallu||Rawatsar, Biramsar, Dandusar, Gandaisi|
|5.||Saharan||Pula Saran||300||Bhadang||Khejra, Phog, Buchawas, Sui, Bandhnau, Sirsala|
|6.||Godara||Pandu Godara||700||Shekhsar||Shekhsar, Pundrasar, Gusainsar Bada, Gharsisar, Garibdesar, Rungaysar, Kalu|
It is thus clear that out of 2670 villages in the Jangladesh, 2200 villages were under the rule of Jats. Each canton bore the name of the community, and was subdivided into districts.
Migration of Sihag’s
Traditionally Jats consider their origin from the far northwest and claimed ancient Garh Gajni (modernday area between Ghajni, Afghanistan to Rawalpindi, Pakistan) as their original abode. Persian chronicler Firishta strengthened this view and informs us that Jats were originally living near the river of the Koh-i-Jud (Salt Range) in northwest Punjab. The Jats then occupied the Indus valley and settled themselves on both the banks of the Indus River.
By the fourth century region of Multan was under their control. Then they rose to the sovereign power and their ruler Jit Salindra, who promoted the renown of his race, started the Jat colonisation in Punjab and fortified the town Salpur/Sorpur, near Multan. By the end of seventh century, Jats were thickly populated in Deybal region. Their main population was settled in the lower Sindh.The Chachnama stratified these large population of Jats, as ‘the western Jats’ (Jatan-i-Gharbi) and ‘the eastern Jats’ (Jatan-i-Sharqi), living on the eastern and western side of the Indus River. The chronicler s further classified them as ‘The Jats living on the banks of the rivers (Lab-i-Daryayi) and the Jats living in plain, desert (Jatan-i-Dashti); and ‘the rustic Jats’ (rusta’i Jat) living in villages. As Jataki, the peculiar dialect of the Jats, also proves that the Jats must have come from the NW Punjab and from other districts (e.g. Multan) dependent upon the great country of the Five rivers.
By the end of fifth and the beginning of the sixth century, Sihag’s and Jat’s southward migration, second in line, took place and they reached Kota in Rajasthan, probably via Bikaner regions. From Kota they migrated further east and established their rule at Malwa under the rule of Salichandra, son of Vira Chandra. Salichandra erected a minster (mindra) on banks of the river Taveli in Malwa. Probably after their defeat by Sultan Mahmud in 1027 AD, and later hard pressed by the Ghaznavi Turkish Commander, the Jats of Sind again migrated to Rajasthan and settled themselves in Bundi regions. The second inscription found at Bundi probably dates from circa samvat 1191 (1135 AD) possibly refers to the Jats as opponents of the Parmara rulers of Rajasthan.
When Muhammad bin Qasim attacked Dahlilah, a fortified town in between Roar and Brahmanabad, most of the inhabitants (the Jats) had abandoned the place and migrated to Rajasthan via desert and took shelter in the country of Siru (modern Sirohi distict) which was then ruled by King Deva Raj, a cousin of Rai Dahir.
However, the third migration took place in early eighth century, Sihag’s and Jats of lower Sind migrated to Rajasthan, probably via Barmer regions to Bikaner, Ganganagar and Hanumangarh. By the twelfth century, the Jats settled in western Punjab, as the native poet Abul Farj Runi mentions them along with the Afghans. Meanwhile, they also extended their abode in the eastern part of the Punjab (now Haryana to Sirsa and Hisar), as in the end of the twelfth century they resisted Qutb-ud-din Aybak in the region of Hansi.
Villages founded by Sihag clan
- Asini Kot is name of an ancient Fort mentioned by James Tod in Annals of Jaisalmer (p.233). Pliny has mentioned Asini for Asiagh clan of Jats.
- Biramsar Bikaner – village in Nokha tahsil in Bikaner district in Rajasthan was Founded by Sihag Jats.
- Dandusar – town in tahsil and district Bikaner in Rajasthan was one of their districts.
- Devasar – village in Bikaner district in Rajasthan was Founded by Sihag Jats.
- Gandheli – town in Rawatsar tahsil of Hanumangarh district in Rajasthan. Gandheli was founded by Sihag clan and was one of their districts. Their chief was Chokha Singh Sihag.
- Goluwala Sihagan – village in district Hanumangarh in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
- Pallu – village in Rawatsar tahsil of Hanumangarh district in Rajasthan. It was a thikana of Sihag Jats of Jangal Desh prior to its annexation by Rathores. Its ancient name was Palhupura or Prahladakupa. (See:A prasasti of the Sapadalaksha line, L-15). It gets name after the daughter named Pallu of Jat Chieftain Mugandharaka of Sihag clan.
- Sihaganwali (Ganganagar)
- Sihagonwali Dhani (Ganganagar)
- Siyako Ki Dhani (Jalor)
- Siyagaon Ki Dhani – Village in Baytoo tahsil of Barmer district in Rajasthan.
- Siyago Ki Beri – village in Gudha Malani Tahsil of Barmer district in Rajasthan.
- Siyagon Ki Dhani – Village in Barmer and Gudha Malani tahsils of Barmer district in Rajasthan.
- Siyagon Ki Dhani Chak No1 – village in Gudha Malani Tahsil of Barmer district in Rajasthan.
- Suin – village in Lunkaransar tehsil in Bikaner district in Rajasthan
- Sihaganwali – village in District Ganganagar in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
- Sihagonwali Dhani – village is in Ganganagar district in Rajasthan.
- Siyako Ki Dhani – village in Sanchor Tahsil of Jalor district in Rajasthan.
- Taja Patti – village of Abohar tahsil in Firozpur district in Punjab. Taja Ram Sihag founded in about 1895 AD.
- Jhumiannwali – village of Abohar tahsil in Firozpur district in Punjab.
Rulers in Jangladesh (Rajasthan)
It has been said by James Todd,Thakur Deshraj and many other historians that that Asiagh (Sihag), Punia, Godara, Saran, Beniwal and Johiya were aboriginal owners of Land of Maroo, Jangladesh(Rajasthan).They were nomadic tribes and lived pastoral life like all other scythians.James Todd considers them to be Getae of major Scythian tribe massagetae(Great Jats).
According to Thakur Deshraj, Todd and Dayaldas, Asiagh (Sihag) were rulers in North Jangladesh (Rajasthan) prior to the rule of Rathores . Jangladesh coincided with the princely state of Bikaner in Rajasthan. When Rathores under the leadership of Bika and Kandal were spreading their rule in Jangladesh, At that time Asiagh(Sihag) Jat were ruling in about 150 villages in Jangledesh.Another view by historians is that they ruled about 350 vilages. Chokha Singh Sihag was their king and their capital was at Pallu (Kot Kaloor) town and their another capital was Sui(Sihaggoti). Rawatsar, Devasar, Biramsar, Moteir, Dandusar and Gandeli were other famous towns in their state.Birhmani Mata’s mandir at Pallu(Kot Kaloor) is very famous. It is known that Shivaji Siag had drunk the milk of a lioness. Son of Shivaji Siag, Manak Dev Ji had a war with Momgharuka (king of Kot Kaloor) and won. The name of daughter of Momgharuka was Pal and modern Pallu town was named after her and its earliar its name was Kot Kaloor. The name of Manak Dev Ji’s wife was Laachha Devi. Laachha Devi was of Dudi Gotra. Manak Dev Ji had died in war with Laakha. Manak Dev Ji’s wife was burnt as ‘Sati’ at a Johad (pond) in Pallu.
Pallu(Kot Kaloor) was the main attraction of Jain religion and there many 11th century old Idols had found. One of those Idols are now in National musium, New Delhi and another in Bikaner musium.
Chokha Singh Sihag had war with Rathores but the Godara Jats and Delhi Muslims had aligned with Rathores due to which Asiaghs faced a defeat. Rathores had established good relations with the Delhi Muslim rulers and became powerful. The lack of harmony and coordination among other Jat rulers led to the defeat of Jat states in Jangladesh and established the Rathore Kingdom.It has been known that even after defeat Sihag Jats did’nt accepted Rathore’s rule and they knew that Sihag Jats will be great trouble for them so,Rathore’s cheated Sihag’s and called them in a hall for conference and locked the hall from all sides and burnt them alive by fraud. Part of above information has been obtained from Gorakh Singh,Thakur Deshraj, Todd and Dayaldas and Uday Singh,Rao of Siags (ancestry record keeper), who lives in Gobindgarh village near Ajmer.
They were also the chieftains of a place called ‘Kod Khokhar’ in Mewar region of Rajasthan. After some time they reached Marwar and constructed fort at Pahalkot (Pallukot) in memory of their chieftain named Pallu. They occupied Pallukot and Dadreda areas. Pahalu or Pall was title of Rana. Their ancestors were Vir Rana and Dhir Rana had ruled over the land of Medpat prior this.
Story about King Chokha Singh Sihag
Once Godara king had sent his messenger to King Chokha Singh Sihag Ji of Jangladesh to irritate king Chokha Singh ji and provoke him to fight. So, that messenger went to Devasar village near Pallu. There is a pond in Devasar village where Chokha Singh ji used to take bath and meditated on its shore. Chokha Singh ji was meditating when that messenger reached him. The messenger reached him and said,” I am a messenger of Godaras, give me some offerings”. Chokha Singh ji replied, ” If you want to have food, it will be prepared soon but I don’t give offerings.” As the messenger was ordered to say to Chokha Singh ji, he said,”What type of king you are?” On this, Chokha Singh ji took a handful of water and splashed it onto the messenger. Chokha Singh ji said,” Take this and go away”. But the messenger was astonished on seeing that the water had turned into gold Ashrafees. When the messenger returned to Godara king, he told them:-
“सियागां मैं सम्प घणों, दूजी जात न जोड़
सियाग चोखै दान दियो, छपन लाख करोड़”
“Siagaan mein samp ghano, dooji jaat na jod
Siag Chokhai daan diyo,chappan lakh crore”
Mention in Greek records
Asiagh is one of the Jat clans as described by Megasthenes. Megasthenes was an ambassador of Seleucus I of Syria to the court of Sandrocottus (Chandragupta Maurya) of India, in Pataliputra.
According to Megasthenes, at that time Asiagh Jats were inhabited in northern salt-range Punjab region, known as Amanda.
Then succeeds a level tract of country known by the general name of Amanda (Manda) – The Peucolaitae (Panghal), Arsagalitae (Asiagh), Geretae (Getae), Asoi (Asiagh) – whereof the tribes are four in number.
Please read – Jat clans as described by Megasthenes.
H. W. Bellew
H. W. Bellew writes that After the capture of Aornos, Alexander, descending from the Rock, marched into the territories of the Assakenoi (perhaps the Aswaka or Assaka, the tribe perhaps of the Assagetes, which name may stand for Assa Jat of the Assa tribe of the Jat nation or race; the Assakenoi may be now represented by the Yaskun as before stated), in pursuit of the Barbarians who had fled into the mountains there; and when he arrived at the city of Dyrta (capital perhaps of the Darada), there, he found both that and the country around entirely destitute of inhabitants. (Alexander appears to have crossed the Barandu river into the Puran and Chakesar valleys, now inhabited by the Chagharzi Afghans; there is a castellated village in Chakesar called Daud perhaps the Musalman disguise of a native Dardu, possibly so named from inhabitants of the Dardu tribe.)
Isa stands for Asi or Asiani the Asioi of Strabo, one of the four Skythian tribes that deprived the Greeks of Baktriana.
In Central Asia
I.Sara, a Canadian barrister and solicitor has pointed out that the recent excavations in the Ukraine and Crimea provide visible links of Jats and Scythians.
Cap. Dalip Singh Ahalawat has reported in an article published in Jat Samaj Patrika (Oct./Nov.1991) that Jats had ruled in Scythia and Central Asia. He has given a list of about 70 Jat gotras who have ruled over there.
Cap. Dalip Singh has mentioned following Jat gotras who ruled over Scythia and Central Asia in his book “jat veeron ka itihaas”-
According to Todd’s Rajasthan (based upon the writings of Justin and Herodotus), thousands of years before Christ, the Sihag Mahajati tribe lived on the bank of the River Oxus(Amu Darya). The Her, Bhullar and Dahiya also lived in the adjoining countries of Iran and Turkistan.
They were one of the nomadic tribes, mentioned in Roman and Greek accounts who are said to have been responsible for the downfall of the state of Bactria circa 140 BCE.They defeated Greeks. These tribes are usually identified as Scythian or Saka peoples.
Thakur Deshraj has mentioned in his book on History of Jats “Jat Itihas” (Hindi) (1934) that the country Assyria gets its name from Asiagh gotra Jats. The origin of word Asiagh is from Sanskrit word ‘Asii’ meaning sword. According to Kautilya the people who depended on ‘Asii’ (sword) for their living were known as Asiagh. The Asiaghs moved from Asirgarh in Malwa to Europe. Those who settled in Jangladesh were called Sihag and those who moved to Scandinavia were known as Asii. Jats entered Scandinavia around 500 BCE and their leader was Odin Singh. James Tod considers Odin to be derived from Buddha or Bodan. The Asii Jats founded Jutland as their homeland in Scandinavia. The religious book of Scandinavia ‘Edda’ mentions that the ancient inhabitants of Scandinavia were Jats or Jits who were Aryans known as Asii people and came to this land from Asirgarh.
Asirgarh is a site of an ancient fort situated in Burhanpur district of Malwa region in Madhya Pradesh, India. Thakur Deshraj further quotes Scandinavian writer Mr Count Johnsturn who says that Scandinavians came from India. According to James Tod Scandinavia is derived from Sanskrit word ‘Skandhnabh’.
The above view is further supported by Mangal Sen Jindal (1992): History of Origin of Some Clans in India (with special Reference to Jats), (ISBN 81-85431-08-6) that the people of Scandinavia were Jats and they founded Jutland as their homeland.
Quoting Herodotus Todd writes that these people worshipped according to Indian customs and they considered sight of certain birds as good omen.
It is of interest that ancient name of Hansi in Hisar district of Haryana was also Asigarh.
According to G. Bongard-Levin and A. Vigasin, Soviet studied have revealed that the migration of steppes tribes from Central Asia started in second century BCE. Excavation in Tajikistan and Swat (Pakistan) reveal the presence of Aryan culture in Central Asia at that time. Some groups of these people like Asiagh jats and many other jats had lineage directly with the Rig Vedic Aryans.
The Scythian tribes in second century BCE crossed Pamir and moved to north India. They carried with them some elements of the Central Asian culture. The sword, “Asii” in Sanskrit, is one of them that came to Taxila.
From the above description it becomes clear that the Asiagh people were the first wave of Scythians from Central Asia.
Lake Urmia is a salt lake in northwestern Iran between the provinces of East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan, west of the southern portion of the similarly shaped Caspian Sea. Lake Urmia has 102 islands. Asiaghs had number of island in their name. Their names are as follows: Ashk (Asiagh), Ashksar (Asiagh), Ashku (Asiagh),
They were known as Asika/Asmaka/Assaka/Ashmaka in Mahabharat.
The Mahabharata Tribe – Asmaka is associate with the Iksvaku line of Kshatriyas in Puranas and Buddhist scriptures refer to their land as a Mahajanapada. Identified with Paithan in Aurangabad district, this janapada may have comprised modern Nasik and Aurangabad. Fought with the Pandavas.
Bhisma Parva Mahabharata, Book 6:Chapter 10, writes as Ashmaka about province of Asmaka along with Munda, Sunda, Vidarbha, Asika, Pansurashtra and Goparashtra in shloka 42 as under:
गॊविन्दा मन्दकाः षण्डा विदर्भानूपवासिकाः
अश्मकाः पांसुराष्ट्राश च गॊप राष्ट्राः पनीतकाः (VI.10.42)
Drona Parva Mahabharata mentions Asmakas with Kekayas.
धृष्टथ्युम्नश च थुर्धर्षः शिखण्डी चापराजितः
अश्मकाः केकयाश चैव कषत्रधर्मा च सौमकिः (VII. 61.39)
Assaka, or Ashmaka, was one of the solasa (sixteen) Mahajanapadas of ancient India (700–300 BCE) mentioned in the Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya. The mahajanapada was located on the banks of the Godavari River. Its capital was Potali, Potana or Podana, which now lies in the Nandura Tehsil. It was the only Mahajanapada situated to the south of the Vindhya Range , and was in Dakshinapatha. The Buddhist text Mahagovinda Suttanta mentions about a ruler of Assaka, Brahmadatta who ruled from Potana.
Later the people spread southward to the territory of the Rashtrakuta empire, which is now in modern Maharashtra.
Asikanagar: The city of Asiagh
The Hathigumpha inscription of King Kharavela at Bhubaneshwar in Orissa mentions about Asikanagar, a city of Asiaghs, in line 4 as under:
Line 4 – कारयति पनतिसाहि सतसहसेहि पकतियो च रंजयति [।।] दुतिये च वसे अचितयिता सातकनिं पछिमदिसं हय गज नर रध बहुलं दंडं पठापयति [।।] कन्हवेंणां गताय च सेनाय वितासिति असिक नगरं [।।] ततिये पुन वसे
Means – In the second year, without caring for Sātakarnī [His Majesty] sent to the west a large army consisting of horse, elephant, infantry and chariot, and struck terror to Asikanagara with that troop that marched up to the river Kanhavemnā.
An article by K L Faujdar about Raja Kharavela in Orissa mentions about the rule of Kaswan in 2nd century of Vikram samvat. It has been mentioned in ‘Hathi Gumpha and three other inscriptions’ (page 24) in Sanskrit as under:
Sanskrit – कुसवानाम् क्षत्रियानां च सहाय्यतावतां प्राप्त मसिक नगरम्
IAST – “Kusawānāṃ kshatriyānāṃ ca Sahāyyatāvatāṃ prāpt masika nagaraṃ”.
This translates that the city of ‘Masiknagara’ was obtained with the help of ‘Kuswan’ Kshatriyas.
According to Sadananda Agrawal interpretation of the city as Masikanagara is not well-supported. Kanhavemṇā is commonly equated with the river Krishna coastal flowing in Andhra Pradesh. However, Krishna lies much to the south of Kalinga, and not west as averred in the epigraph (Devanagari: पछिमदिसं). But there is another stream flowing to the west of Kalinga in Vidarbha and known locally at present as Kanhan which flows about 17 km northwest of Nagpur and joins the river Vena (Wainganga), and it is the combined flow of these two streams that is spoken as Kanhavemṇā in our records. The recent find of a sealing belonging to the Asikajanapada in course of intensive archaeological excavations at Adam (Nagpur district) has solved also the problem of locating Asikanagara whose king or and people became frightful at the arrival of Kharavela’s army at Kanhavemṇā. In view of the evidence of a highly prosperous city unearthed at Adam, Prof AM Shastri is of the opinion that Adam itself represents the Asikanagara of Hathigumpha inscription. It is worth noting in the present context that a terracotta sealing having a legend, has been discovered from Adam, situated on the right bank of the river Wainganga, which reads Asakajanapadasa (Devanagari: असकजनपदस).
The township of Asikanagara to the west of Nagpur indicates the township of Asiagh or Siyak jats. This is also supported by Thakur Deshraj that Asiagh Jats moved from Asirgarh in Malwa to Rajasthan. This must have been migration to Rajasthan of these people when their rule came to an end. After this period their rule is recorded in Jangladesh by the Historians James Tod and Thakur Deshraj.
From the above description we can interpret that Kaswan Jat was a chieftain who helped Kharavela in his war expedition. Kaswan Jats must also have moved along with Kharavela to Kalinga.
Distribution in Haryana
Villages in Bhiwani District
Mandhan Tosham, Miran,
Villages in Fatehabad District
Baijalpur, Bhattu Kalan, Jandwala Sotter, Phullan,
Villages in Hisar District
In Haryana main Sihag villages are Siwani Bolan, Sisai ( सिसाय)/Sisai Bola, Chautala, Jakhod Khera, Kaimri, Dadayra (ददायरा), Kharia Hisar, Ratiya,
Villages in Jhajjar District
Chhudani, Matanhail, Bishan
Villages in Jind District
Frain Kalan, Abhatpur, Haibatpur, Nehra
Villages in Mahendergarh district
Villages in Sirsa District
Ali- Mohammad, Asa khera, Chautala, Dhukara, Jhittikhera, Karamshana, Khari Sureran, Ludesar, Mameran Kalan, Mithanpura, Mithi Sureran, Munnawali, Neemla, Phulkan, Ratta Kheda, Resalia Khera, Suchan, Teja Khera,
Distribution in Rajasthan
Locations in Jaipur city
Himmat Nagar, Jhotwara, Khatipura Jaipur, Mansarowar Colony
Villages in Jaipur District
Syak jats live in villages : Athmoriyo Ki Dhani, Bookni, Boraj, Dewala, Hirnoda, Keshupura, Mordi, Pawsu, Dudu, Rahlana,
Syag jats live in villages : Bhooratiya, Gokulpura Pakhan, Mohanpura, Rahlana,
Villages in Sikar District
Bidsar, Dhandhan, Ghana Sikar, Kerpura, Lalsar, Mandeta, Narsas, Sikar,
Villages in Jhunjhunu District
Adooka, Bhurasar Bijnai Ka Bas (Raghunathpura), Indali Gaon, Kant Jhunjhunu, Kodesar, Malsisar Jhunjhunu, Mainana, Nand Ka Bas, Niradhanu Pipal Ka Bas, Sonasar,
Villages in Nagaur District
Balwa, Bemoth, Bher, Birloka, Chui, Dabriya, Genana, Gotan, Habchar, Himmatpura, Kaswan Ki Dhani, Kantiya, Kherwa, Lalawas, Madhaniyon Ki Dhani, Maheshpura, Mundiyau (40), Narwa Kalan, Panchori, Papasani, Potliya Manjra (), Raliyavta, Sarunda, Siyagon Ki Dhani, Shyamsar, Singar, Tadawas, Tarnau, Beetan, Ubasi Nagaur,
Villages in Jodhpur District
Bahara Khurd, Barliya, Budkiya, Cherai, Gharaw, Ghevara, Jati Bhandu, Jhanwar, Jodhpur, Kapooriya, Khawaspura, Khejarla, Khudiyala Osian, Madla Kalan, Malawas, Mornawara, Nandiya Khurd, Poonasar, Salwa Kalla, Sirmandi, Sointara, Soyla, Tena, Banar Jodhpur,
Villages in Barmer District
Aakli, Alamsar, Balewa, Balotra, Bandra, Barmer, Baytu, Bhachbhar, Bhadaroo, Bheemra, Bhooniya, Bisaraniya Barmer, Chari Barmer, Chohtan, Daboi, Dharasar, Dholanada, Gangasara, Gira, Isramon Ka Tala, Kharapar, Khudasa, Kothala, Loonara, Madhasar, Madpura Barwala, Neembal Kot, Nimboniyon Ki Dhani, Naukh, Pabubera, Ramji Ka Gol, Ramsar, Sawau, Shyamsar, Sihagon Ki Dhani (Kawas), Sindari, Taratara, Taratara Math, Utarlai (Kawas), Chaadi, Saranu, Chawa, Siyagoo Ki Dhani (Madupura Baewala), Siyagaon Ki Dhani (Baytu tahsil), Siyagon Ki Dhani (Baytu tahsil), Siyago Ki Beri (t.Gudha Malani), Siyagon Ki Dhani (t.Gudha Malani), Siyagon Ki Dhani Chak No1 (t.Gudha Malani), Sobhala Jetmalan, Ratasar, Sawau Moolraj Baytu,
Villages in Jaisalmer District
Villages in Pali District
Dhigarna, Dhundhla (Sojat), Sihagon Ki Dhani
Villages in Jalor District
Chitalwana, Gundau, Mirpur Kheda, Sensawa, Siyako Ki Dhani (t.Sanchor),
Villages in Chittorgarh District
Villages in Churu District
Balrasar, Bheemsana, Bhojasar, Bidasar, Bilyoobas Rampura, Chhajusar Churu, Chhapar Churu, Dhani Bari, Ghasla Agoona, Ghasla Athoona, Gulpura, Hansiawas, Jaitasar, Juharpura, Khandwa Patta Peetheesar, Moleesar Bara, Paharsar, Ramsara Taal, Raiya Tunda, Rajpura, Roopeli, Sahwa, Sardarshahar, Satyun, Sidhmukh, Sujangarh,
Villages in Ganganagar District
Amarpura Jatan, Binjhbaila, Dhingawali, Ghamudwali, Goluwala Sihagan Morjand Khari, Nagi, Panniwali, Sihaganwali, Sihagonwali Dhani, Suratgarh,
Villages in Hanumangarh District
Ayalki, Baramsar, Bashir, Bhagwan, Bhairusari, Bharwana, Bojhla, Budhwalia, Chahuwali, Chaiya, Dhaban, Dhannasar, Dingarh, Dholipal, Fatuhi, Hanumangarh, Jorawarpura Hanumangarh, Khachwana, Kharachak, Kharsandi, Khothawali, Kishanpura Utaradha, Lakhera, Makkasar, Munnawali Hanumangarh, Nagrana, Nimla, Nukera, Phephana, Pichkarain, Ramgarh, Ramgarh Ujjalwas, Rampura Urf Ramsara, Ranjitpura, Ratanpura, Ratnisar Mahajan, Rorawali, Saharni, Saliwala, Sikrodi, Silwala Khurd, Sangaria, Shergarh Thalarka,
Villages in Bikaner District
Barsingsar, Basi Bikaner, Beegawas Ramsara, Khajuwala, Nokhagaon (150), Palana, Panchoo, Saroopdesar, Satasar, Surnana, Takhatpura,
Villages in Tonk District
Sihag Jats live in villages : Rahimpura
Syag Jats live in villages: Kalyanpura Bawdi
Syak Jats live in villages: Kalyanpura Bawdi, Pratappura Diggi, Maharajpura
Distribution in Punjab
Villages in Punjab with Siag population are : Abohar, Fazilka, Dhinganwali, Keharianwali, Khanpur, Jhumianwali, Panchkosi, Suana, Taja-patti, Bandiwala, Kikar Wala Rupa
Dhinganwali – The village Dhinganwali was founded in 1921 (Vikrami Samvat) by three Siags -Chetan Ram ji, Tiku Ram Ji and Hiro ji who had migrated here from Moteir village in Rajasthan. Six sons of Ch. Ram Rakh Siag -Sahib Ram, Krishan, Rajender, Rai Singh, Arjun Singh and Bhim Sain are living in this village. The eldest of them, is the Sarpanch of the village. Arjun singh was MLA of Abohar during (Punjab) in 1986.
Villages in Firozpur District
Distribution in Madhya Pradesh
Found in Mandsaur district, where they are called Sihak.
Villages in Hoshangabad District
Golgaon, Guradiya, Mayau Gaon, Jhillai,
Villages in Dewas District
Bichkuwa, Dawatha, Dhasad, Saktiya, Borkhedi, Khal
Villages in Dhar District
Villages in Mandsaur district
Betikheri, Handari, Kacharia Jat, Laduna (Sitamau), Pipalkhuta
Villages in Nimach District
Sihag are found in Nimach city in Nimach district.
Villages in Raisen District
Villages in Ratlam District
Madhopura Ratlam is a notable village of this gotra. Villages in Ratlam district with population of this gotra are:
Badauda 2, Berchha 2, Chikliya 1, Damottar 3, Dantodiya 2, Delanpur 1, Dhamottar 3, Dhaturiya 7, Dhaunswas 1, Ghatla, Kanser 1, Madhopura Ratlam 39, Madhopur Ratlam, Mundari 3, Narayangarh sailana 17, Negarda 3, Ramgarh sailana 2, Ratlam 1, Rojana 3, Sailana 5, Sinod 1, Sujlana 1, Surana 2
Villages in Sehore District
Gopalpur Sehore, Muhai,
Villages in Harda District
Alanpur Harda, Bhonkhedi, Dewas Harda, Nayagaon,
Villages in Khandwa District
Distribution in Uttar Pradesh
Found in Ghaziabad district, where they are called Siwal.
Villages in Ghaziabad District
Villages in Meerut District
Found in Meerut district where they are called Bolan. Villages are : Bharala Meerut, Mehrauli, Panwari Meerut, Partapur,
Villages in Jyotiba Phule Nagar District
Nipaniya urf Nipnia
Villages in Muzaffarnagar District
Khanpur Muzaffarnagar, Nangli Mahasingh,
Distribution in Pakistan
According to James Tod : Jakhar, Asiagh, Punia are all denominations of the Jat race, a few of whom preserve under these ancient subdivisions their old customs and religion ; but the greater part are among the converts to Islam, and retain the generic name, pronounced Zjat. Those enumerated are harmless and industrious, and are found both in the desert and valley. There are besides these a few scattered families of ancient tribes , as the Sultana, and Khumra, of whose history we are ignorant, Johyas, Sindhals, and others, whose origin has already been noticed in the Annals of Marusthali.
Siag Hindu Jats are residing in Umarkot, Tharparkar, Mirpurkhas and Sanghar districts of Sindh Province,Pakistan and Punjab (Pakistan).
The Sehwag were another Mulla Jat clan found mainly in Hissar and Sirsa. Like other Mulla Jat clans, they emigrated to Punjab (Pakistan) after partition.
- Kuldeep Kumar Sihag – Principal, M.D. Law college , Sri ganaganagar , Rajasthan
- Choudhary Gopi Ram Sihag A.S.I. Sri ganaganagar, Rajasthan
- Naina Singh Chautala Sihag, MLA, Haryana elected from Dabwali constituency in district Sirsa.
- Ranjit Singh Sihag – In 15th century at Ratiya (Hisar), originator of Bolan branch.
- Chokha Singh Sihag – – Jat ruler of Jangladesh region in Rajasthan prior to annexation of it by Rathores in 15th century.
- Bhinya Ram Sihag (14.9.1891-10.10.1954) was a social worker and reformer from Parbatsar city in Nagaur district of Rajasthan. He was instrumental in improving the educational and social status of the farmers of Rajasthan.
- Virender Sehwag – Famous Cricketer from Najafgarh , Haryana
- Vimla Sihag – progressive farmer from village Boranara in Luni Tahsil of Jodhpur district in Rajasthan. She is known for Ber cultivation in desert area.
- Capt Chander Choudhary – (SS-37998) of Sihag gotra from ‘The Grenadiers Regiment’ became martyr in 2002 in OP Parakram.
- Ch. Sahib Ram Sihag – Elder Brother of Chaudhari Devi Lal.
- Choudhary Lixaman Ram Sihag Jagirdar of Bhagwan
- Surendar Kumar Sihag B.J.P.Kissan Neta Bhagwan,Nohar
- Chaudhary Bhani Ram Siag (Zaildar)
- Chaudhary Dhonkal Ram Siag (Zaildar)
- Ch. Sukh Ram ji Sihag, Rais of Chautala
- Chaudhary Devi Lal
- Om Prakash Chautala
- Dr Satbir Singh Sihag
- Dr Neelam Sihag – RJS-2008, From village Rajpura Taranagar, Churu, Rajasthan
- Chaudhary Maha Singh Sihag
- A. R. Sihag – IAS
- Arjun Siag -Ex-MLA of Abohar
- Jogi Ram Sihag – MLA, Haryana
- Panna Ram Siyag – IFS Rajasthan, 1986
- Mool Chand Siyag – Social Worker
- Sandip Suhag – founder of www.jatsamaj.im